Tajikistan is nesteled in the south-eastern part of Central Asia. In the West and North it borders with Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan, in the south with Afghanistan, and in the East, in the most mountainous area – with China.
Tajikistan is almost all mountains (93%), dominated by the Alay Range in the north and the Pamir Mountains to the southeast. In fact, more than half of the country is higher than 3,000 m, (9,842 ft.) in elevation.
There are several types of climates prevelant in Tajikistan determined by the altitude of a location and character of relief formed by the mountains. The climate with very hot summer and mild winter dominates in valleys, located at the altitude of 350-500m. Long summer (more than 200 days) is typical for this climate and small number of precipitation– 150-200 mm. Climate with hot summer and cool winter is typical for foothills of Kuhistan, south – western down hills and more high elevated valleys. Mild climate is typical for mountain ranges of Central Tajikistan and Southern Pamirs at the altitude of 1,500-3,000 m. Here summers are cool, winter is cold and during autumn-winter period there is much precipitation. Cold climate reigns at the altitude of more than 3,000m. Summers are short and winters are long and frosty. High-mountain and desert climates are typical for the Eastern Pamirs. Precipitation in this area is only 600-1000 mm, mainly during the summer season. Summers in the Pamirs are dry and short while winters are severe, with little snow and long. In the high altitudes permafrost of up to 1.5 m can be found.
Tajikistan’s highest point is Qullai Ismoili Somoni, and peaks at 24,589 ft. (7,495 m).
The numerous mountain chains are etched with deep valleys formed by a dense maze of cold-water rivers.
The eastern mountains contain many glaciers and lakes. The Fedchenko Glacier (surrounding the country’s highest peaks) covers 700 square kilometers, and is the largest non-polar glacier in the world
The lowest elevations are in the northwest, southwest and in the Fergana Valley, which dominates Tajikistan’s far northern section.
The country’s extensive mountain system spawns many rivers, with the most significant being the Syr Darya, Amu Darya (called the Panj in central Tajikistan), Vakhsh (called the Surkhob in northern Tajikistan), Panj, Pamir and Bartang.